Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Immunization Schedule for Children: National Immunization Program- Nepal

The National Immunization Programme (at the time known as the Expanded Programme on Immunization - EPI) was initiated in 1979 in three districts with only two antigens (BCG and DPT) and was rapidly expanded to include all 75 districts with all six recommended antigens (BCG, DTP, OPV, and measles) by 1988.

In 2003, with the support of the GAVI Alliance, monovalent Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine was introduced, which was later administered as a single tetravalent (DPT-HepB) injection. In 2009, vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b was introduced through out the nation in a phase wise manner starting in Far Western (FWDR) and Western (WDR) Development Regions. Also in 2009, Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine was introduced into the routine immunizationprogramme in 16 JE endemic districts following JE mass vaccination campaigns.



Routine immunization Schedule for children and pregnant women

Vaccine
Disease(s) prevented
Number of Doses
Recommended Age
BCG
tuberculosis
1
At birth or on first contact
OPV
Polio
3
6, 10, and 14 weeks of age
DPT-HepB-Hib
Diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B, andHaemophilus influenzae type b
3
6, 10, and 14 weeks of age
Measles
1
9 months of age
TT
tetanus
2
All Pregnant women
Note – 5 doses of TT vaccine during a woman’s reproductive life
JE
Japanese encephalitis
1
12 to 23 months

Source- http://www.nep.searo.who.int



Year
Activity
1979
*        Started immunization program with BCG and OPV in three districts.
1988
*        Nationwide immunization program with BCG, OPV, DTP, Measles.
1996
*        First nationwide polio immunization campaign.
1998 

*        Polio Eradication Nepal (PEN) was established with four surveillance field offices.
*        Nepal National Certification Committee was formed.
*        Surveillance Medical Officers hired by WHO to support polio eradication activities.
*        International and national review for polio eradication initiatives
2000

*        Last reported indigenous case of poliomyelitis in Nepal.
2001



*        Program expands to 14 surveillance field offices (10 in 2005).
*        National Expert Review Committee starts virological classification of AFP cases.
*        AFP surveillance achieves internationally accepted standards.
2002
*        National Task Force for Laboratory Containment of wild poliovirus formed.
*        TT campaign was initiated (2002-2004, for age 11 to 39 and 15 to 45 years)
2003
*        Measles and tetanus surveillance integrated into AFP surveillance network.
*        National Public Health Laboratory accredited by WHO as a National Laboratory for Measles surveillance.
*        National immunization injection safety policy
*        Hepatitis B included in the routine immunization schedule.
2004

*        Surveillance for acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) for Japanese encephalitis (JE) integrated into AFP surveillance.
*        Nationwide Measles catch up immunization campaign initiated (2004-2005, in three phases).
2005
*        Neonatal tetanus elimination achieved.
*        Sentinel surveillance for Haemophilus Influenzae type b initiated.
*        Immunization Officers hired to support routine immunization.
*        School immunization was initiated with TT for student (grade 1, 2 and 3) in 8 districts
2006
*        Japanese encephalitis catch up campaigns initiated in high risk districts.
*        International and national AFP surveillance review.
2007
*        Measles case-based surveillance initiated.
2008
*        Measles follow up campaign integrated with OPV nationwide (in two phases).
*        Rubella burden of disease studies initiated.
*        National Committee for Immunization Practice Formed.
2009
*        Hib vaccine included in the routine immunization schedule.
*        JE vaccine included in the routine immunization schedule in 17 districts that completed catch up campaigns.
*        EPI coverage survey.
*        Sentinel surveillance site for rotavirus initiated.
*        Sentinel sites for Hib disease expanded to include pneumococcal disease.
*        Initiated pneumonia surveillance to support H5N1, H1N1 influenza through AFP surveillance network.
*        Provided technical support for cholera outbreak in Mid West Development Region.
2010
*        International and national review of vaccine preventable diseases and EPI.

This Article is taken from WHO website for Nepal

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