Friday, October 17, 2014

Healthy Food for Growing Children


Children require a steady supply of all the vital nutrients as they grow to facilitate healthy growth and development in general; physically, mentally and socially. In this article you will get to know about the necessary foods for growing kids, their nutrient compositions and their benefits to your child. Here is a detailed look:


Carbohydrates: 

Children spend most of their time playing and consequently utilize most of the energy present in their bodies. As such, it is important that carbohydrates be included in the child's diet so as to provide the body with sufficient energy to not only facilitate playing but also growth of strong and steady muscles, bones and wits.

Foods rich in carbohydrates and which are easy to find include:

Eggs Whole grains and cereals

Potatoes

Green vegetables

Bread

Fruits like citrus, berries, apples and watermelons among others.




Proteins: 

Proteins are among the most vital nutrients for kids as they facilitate body building; directly affecting physical growth. They also help boost the body's immunity against certain illnesses, further ensuring healthy development. As such, you should ensure that your child gets a steady supply of proteins by eating foods like:

Eggs and other poultry products

Dairy products like milk, cheese and yoghurt

Beans and nuts

Lean meat


Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins are necessary for a healthy immune system in growing children. They help to directly improve the body's immune system, helping fight off infections which may be deadly if lest to spread in the body. Other vitamins also help improve the body's general capabilities like eyesight and skin firmness and texture among others. Minerals like calcium on the other hand facilitate growth of strong bones and teeth in the body.

Foods rich in vitamins and minerals include:

Potatoes, carrots and dark green leafy vegetables for vitamin A

Fruits like berries, tomatoes and citrus for vitamin C

Fish oil and cod liver oil for vitamin D to facilitate absorption of other minerals like calcium


Fiber
Albeit it may not seem as important, fibers help keep the body's system clean and running smoothly while also improving digestion and proper body growth and development. They hence help keep your child feeling fit and comfortable.
They are easily obtained from foods like:

Legume like peas, beans and lentils among others

Fruits with peels like apples and peach

Brown rice and pasta made from whole grains

Bread made from whole wheat


Fats
Fats are considered to be generally bad by most people owing to the rising cases of overweight people. However, fats are just as vital as other nutrients. Furthermore, there is a wide range of natural foods with good fats as compared to unhealthy fats and cholesterol found in fast foods. Among other things, fats help store energy in the body for future use They also help give the skin a healthy and supple look and feel; enhancing a healthy and beautiful appearance.
Fats can be easily obtained from foods such as:

Dairy products like cheese, yoghurt and milk

Meat and oily fish

Avocados Margarine and butter


Conclusion. Ensuring that your growing child has a stable supply of these vital nutrients will facilitate strong and healthy body growth. This will consequently ensure that he/she is free of the common illnesses.

Author Bio:I am Jessica Cranwell, I am a Blogger and Freelancer. I love reading blogs, and writing for them on various themes like Travel, Auto, Lifestyle, Education and Health. As of now I am doing research of Ehic cards.

Tuesday, October 14, 2014

Blood Transfusion Guidelines in Neonates and Children- Red Cell Transfusion

Red Blood Cell transfusion is a common process in Neonatal Intensive care Unit, Pediatric Intensive care and in sick children. A guideline on when to give blood transfusion are provided below. These guidelines are derived from Worldwide accepted textbook - Nelson and Cloherty

Tranfusion Guideleines For Premature Infants- Cloherty

1.  Asymptomatic infants with Hct  less than 21 % and reticulocytes  less than 100, 000/UL (2%)

2. Infants with Hct less than 31% and any of below

  • hood O2 less than 36% or mean airway pressure less than 6 cm H2O by CPAP or IMV  
  • more than 9 apneic and bradycardic episodes per 12 h or 2/24 h requiring bag and mask ventilation while on adequate methylxanthine therapy 
  • HR more than 180/min or RR more then 80/min sustained for 24 h
  • Weight gain of less than 10 g/d for 4 d on 100 Kcal/kg/d 
  • Having surgery


3. Infants with Hct less than 36% and requiring more than 35% O2 or mean airway pressure 6-8 cm H2O by CPAP or IMV


CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure by nasal or endotracheal route; HR = heart rate; Hct = hematocrit; IMV = intermittent mandatory ventilation; RR = respiratory rate. From the multicenter trial of recombinant human erythropoietin for preterm infants.
Source: Data from Straus RG. Erythropoietin and neonatal anemia (Editorial). N Engl J Med 1994;330:1227.



.


 GUIDELINES FOR PEDIATRIC RED BLOOD CELL TRANSFUSIONS [ Nelson Textbook 19th Edition]

CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

   Acute loss of > 25% of circulating blood volume
   Hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL[†] in the perioperative period
   Hemoglobin < 13.0 g/dL and severe cardiopulmonary disease
   Hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL and symptomatic chronic anemia
   Hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL and marrow failure
INFANTS ≤ 4 MO OLD

   Hemoglobin < 13.0 g/dL and severe pulmonary disease
   Hemoglobin < 10.0 g/dL and moderate pulmonary disease
   Hemoglobin < 13.0 g/dL and severe cardiac disease
   Hemoglobin < 10.0 g/dL and major surgery
   Hemoglobin < 8.0 g/dL and symptomatic anemia


Wednesday, September 24, 2014

New Immunization Schedule of Nepal 2014 - IPV, PCV and MR vaccines added

In 2014, September, the National Immunization Schedule was planned for an update with introduction of few new vaccines for prevalent diseases in Nepal. Nepal became the first nation to introduce Injectable Polio Vaccine (IPV) in South East Asia. IPV is recommended in addition to the Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) and not as it's replacement.

Added Vaccines:

  1. PCV - Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
  2. iPV - Injectable Polio vaccine
  3. MR - Mealsles and Rubella vaccine


The New Immunization Schedule of Nepal:


Thanks to Dr. Sani Kumar Singh Sipai for sending correction of the schedule.

Thursday, September 4, 2014

Common Cold in children : Concerned Parents

A child may catch cold several times in a year. Common cold is a benign condition but raises a level of anxiety and concern in parents and is pretty much obvious. After all children are as delicate as they look.
Cough is a common symptom that causes a big concern in parents and commonly they are worried about their child having a chest infection - Pneumonia. Another symptom that worries parents is noisy breathing that may be a simple nasal blockade but can be due to Asthma, Croup and other conditions.

The common cold are symptoms caused by a number of different viruses. More than 100 virus cause cold but  rhinovirus, the type of virus responsible for the greatest number of colds. Other are enteroviruses (echovirus and coxsackieviruses) and coronavirus.

Common Cold common symptoms

Children under 6 years get average six to eight colds per year.

Although  colds occur during the fall and winter months,in any geographic location, it can occur though out the year. It is transmitted from person-to-person, either by direct contact or by contact with the virus in the environment. Colds are most contagious during the first two to four days.
Droplets containing viral particles can be exhaled into the air by breathing or coughing. Rhinoviruses are not usually transmitted as a result of contact with infected droplets, although influenza virus and coronavirus can be transmitted via small droplets. Cold viruses are not usually spread through saliva.

What are the Common Cold Symptoms?
In children, nasal congestion is the most prominent symptom.
Children can also have clear, yellow, or green-colored nasal discharge;
Fever (temperature higher than 100.4ºF or 38ºC) is common during the first three days of the illness.
Sore throat
Cough
Irritability
Difficulty
Sleeping
Decreased appetite.
Red and swollen nasal area
Neck lymph nodes may become slightly enlarged.

What are the Complications of Common Cold?
Most children who have colds do not develop complications.
However, parents should be aware of the signs and symptoms of potential complications.
Ear infection — 5 - 15 percent of children with a cold develop a bacterial or viral ear infection.
If a child develops a fever (temperature higher than 100.4ºF or 38ºC) after the first three days of cold symptoms, an ear infection may be to blame.
Asthma - noisy breathing also referred to as wheezing, called Reactive airway disease in smaller children
Sinusitis
Pneumonia- high grade fever, lethargy, fast breathing, cough and child looks toxic.

COMMON COLD TREATMENT 
 Symptomatic treatment —
1. Plenty of fluids - hydration
2. Warm clothing and warm environment.
3. Nasal care- Cleaning and in older children - steam inhalation with soother can be helpful. Steam inhalation in small children should be avoided as it can cause burns.
Saline nasal drops can be used in case of nasal stuffiness and blockade
4. Adequate rest - speciially children in daycare centres and school should be let to stay warm at home.
5. Antipyretics- High fever can cause discomfort and irritability. Dose of Antipyretics can be given for fever exceeding 100.4 F PRN.
6 Children may present with wheezing
   - Such children may require immediate doses of Nebulization with Salbutamol and if improves can be discharged on oral beta2 agonist

Usually Antibiotics are Not needed as Viruses don't respond to antibiotics. So requesting doctor for an antibiotic and administering over the counter antibiotics are not recommended.

When to seek Medical Help?
Refusal to drink or feed
Inconsolability and undue irritability
Lethargy (decreased responsiveness - Sick/toxic looking);
Difficulty breathing,
Fast Breathing
High grade fever greater than 101ºF (38.4ºC) lasts more than three days.
Vomiting
Convulsion

Such children need immediate medical attention regardless of time - night or day


Monday, September 1, 2014

The deadliest disease in today world


Many times we have debated on list of deadliest diseases. But if we look into the root cause, we can easily figure out the cause of most deaths in the world is poverty. More people die of hunger, starvation and poverty than wars and accidents.


In our scenario, newborns are brought in distress into our Neonatal Unit. Almost everytime the problem is same, the parents are economically broke and there isn't much they can do for their newborn, as they cannot afford NICU and medication charges. Many times we arrange Free beds but the problem is not solved with it. Even after the baby is discharged, he needs care and need to be nurtured.

The poverty is such severe that people come to Health Centres for Delivery, just to get Rs 1000 that government provides the mother under Safe Delivery program. Most of the time, we find, the parents are unprepared economically for any unexpected events at the time of delivery. If the newborn or the mother gets sick, the patients are unprepared for it. Only bearing a child is not a solution, the parents should be responsible enough and capable enough to bring up the child under atleast fair condition. A 16 year old father is in crisis after his wife delivers a preterm newborn, and this is the face of real scenario back here.

Most people here are dying of poverty. They are dying of simple diseases like Diarrhea, Pneumonia and treatable conditions like Neonatal sepsis. Malnutrition is omnipresent and is an amplifier of the risk of death and often itself is a cause of death. A small amount of saving for the time of crisis, a little aid from government can save thousand of lives of the future human resource of the nation, the children. Carelessness is even deadlier and unawareness is deadliest. Unaware of simple signs and symptoms of illness, often there is delay in seeking medical attention and such a delay can cost heavily. Health awareness and Education programs will certainly be helpful in poorer communities. A theme of Keeping a backup plan and a saving before delivering a baby should be promoted, as often people are unaware of the scenario that can arise.